Mga Pahina

Miyerkules, Nobyembre 13, 2013

1st In-put dated November 14, 2013
Traditional Media 
1. Printed Materials. It is considered as the foundation of classroom instruction. It includes textbooks, reference books, booklets, hand-outs, manuals, worktexts/worksheets, etc.
    1.1. Advantages. 
  • Availiability
  • Flexibility
  • Portability
  • User-friendly
  • Economical
    1.2. Limitations
  • Cost
  • Reading Level
  • Prior knowledge
  • Memorization
  • Vocabulary
  • One-way presentation
    1.3. Integration
  • common application of printed materials is presenting information
  • augment teacher information as presented in class
  • used in all subject-areas and in all ages
    1.4. Utilization
  • made sure that students are actively invlved with the usage of the material.
  • technique common to use is the SQ3R which means Survey, Question and and the 3R (read, recite and review). Survey, require students to skim/broqse the printed material and go over the overview and summary. Question, reuiring student to make a list of questions while reading. Read, look for the organization of the material, put brackets around main ideas, underline supporting ideas and answer questions. Recite, allow test reading ability and put context into students own words. Review, require students to look over the material immediately after use, a week later and so on for retention of information.
2. Display Surfaces. This is where printed materials such as photographs, drawings, charts, graphs and posters are usually placed for display. This visuals can be displayed in the classroom in the various ways which includes the chalkboards, whiteboards, electronic boards, bulletin boards, cloth boards, magnetic boards and flip charts.
     2.1. Chalkboards. Before, chalkboards are called interchangeably as blackboards or greenboards. Now, it refers to a display surface inside the classroom where chalk is used as main tool.
            Tips on using the chalkboards:
  •  write clearly and legibly. Always consider children on the last row.
  • bring hard copy of your diagrams or outline to visualized how it should appear on the chalkboard.
  • avoid crowding notes on teh board.
  • make use of colored chalks to highlight kay points.
  • avoid turning your back. Write side view and keep eye contact with the class.
  • start writing from the left to right in order to keep writing on the board orderly and clean.
  • lines on the chalkboard is needed if teaching in the elementary.
  • use curtain if there is glare on the chalkboard.\concave chalkboard can lessen the effects of glare.  
  • write "please save" if board work will still be used the next day.
  • make full use of the chalkboard. its instructional importance should not be underestimated despite new technologies.
            Practical tips/techniques suggested by Brown (1969):
  • Sharpen the chalk to get good line quality.
  • Stand your elbow high. Move along as you write.
  • Use dots as "aiming points". This keeps writing level straight.
  • Make all writing between 2 and 4 inches high to ensure its readable.
  • When using colored chalk, use soft chalk so that it can be erased easily.

Huwebes, Mayo 9, 2013

May 10, 2013

Education 26-Educational Technology 2

Essay. Choose only one to answer. Place your answer  as a comment of this blog.

1. Make an organizational chart showing the role of ICT in the field of Education.

2. Explain the important role of ICT in the classroom teaching.

Miyerkules, Mayo 8, 2013

Computers in Education

Computer technology has had a deep impact on the education sector. Thanks to computers, imparting education has become easier and much more interesting than before. Owing to memory capacities of computers, large chunks of data can be stored in them. They enable quick processing of data with very less or no chances of errors in processing. Networked computers aid quick communication and enable web access. Storing documents on computers in the form of soft copies instead of hard ones, helps save paper. The advantages of computers in education primarily include:

  1. Storage of information
  2. Quick data processing
  3. Audio-visual aids in teaching
  4. Better presentation of information
  5. Access to the Internet
  6. Quick communication between students, teachers and parents

Computer teaching plays a key role in the modern education system. Students find it easier to refer to the Internet than searching for information in fat books. The process of learning has gone beyond learning from prescribed textbooks. Internet is a much larger and easier-to-access storehouse of information. When it comes to storing retrieved information, it is easier done on computers than maintaining hand-written notes.

Computers are a brilliant aid in teaching.

Online education has revolutionized the education industry. Computer technology has made the dream of distance learning, a reality. Education is no longer limited to classrooms. It has reached far and wide, thanks to computers. Physically distant locations have come closer due to Internet accessibility. So, even if students and teachers are not in the same premises, they can very well communicate with one another. There are many online educational courses, whereby students are not required to attend classes or be physically present for lectures. They can learn from the comfort of their homes and adjust timings as per their convenience.

Computers have given impetus to distance education.

Computers facilitate effective presentation of information. Presentation software like PowerPoint and animation software like Flash among others can be of great help to teachers while delivering lectures. Computers facilitate audio-visual representation of information, thus making the process of learning interactive and interesting. Computer-aided teaching adds a fun element to education. Teachers hardly use chalk and board today. They bring presentations on a flash drive, plug it in to a computer in the classroom, and the teaching begins. There's color, there's sound, there's movement - the same old information comes forth in a different way and learning becomes fun. The otherwise not-so-interesting lessons become interesting due to audio-visual effects. Due to the visual aid, difficult subjects can be explained in better ways. Things become easier to follow, thanks to the use of computers in education.

Computer software help better presentation of information.

Internet can play an important role in education. As it is an enormous information base, it can be harnessed for retrieval of information on a variety of subjects. The Internet can be used to refer to information on different subjects. Both teachers and students benefit from the Internet. Teachers can refer to it for additional information and references on the topics to be taught. Students can refer to web sources for additional information on subjects of their interest. The Internet helps teachers set test papers, frame questions for home assignments and decide project topics. And not just academics, teachers can use web sources for ideas on sports competitions, extracurricular activities, picnics, parties and more.

Computers enable access to the Internet which has information on literally everything.

Computers enable storage of data in the electronic format, thereby saving paper. Memory capacities of computer storage devices are in gigabytes. This enables them to store huge chunks of data. Moreover, these deveices are compact. They occupy very less space, yet store large amounts of data. Both teachers and students benefit from the use of computer technology. Presentations, notes and test papers can be stored and transferred easily over computer storage devices. Similarly, students can submit homework and assignments as soft copies. The process becomes paperless, thus saving paper. Plus, the electronic format makes data storage more durable. Electronically erasable memory devices can be used repeatedly. They offer robust storage of data and reliable data retrieval.

Computer hard drives and storage devices are an excellent way to store data.

This was about the role of computers in education. But we know, it's not just the education sector which computers have impacted. They are of great use in every field. Today, a life without computers is unimaginable. This undelines the importance of computer education. Knowledge of computers can propel one's career in the right direction. Computers are a part of almost every industry today. They are no longer limited any specific field. They are used in networking, for information access and data storage and also in the processing and presentation of information. Computers should be introduced early in education.

Lunes, Mayo 6, 2013

Lunes, Abril 29, 2013

Video production tips

These are just a few tips for producing better looking videos for yourself.  Most are fairly obvious once you're aware of them, but they don't seem to occur to many people (see the complementary “filming gripes” page for a quick synopis of common problems and solutions).  If you want something to corroborate them, watch something on television but pay more attention to what's being recorded, and how, than whatever it is that they're portraying.  You'll only need to study a few minutes worth to understand what I've outlined below, and you'll pick up a few more ideas as well.  If you're really keen on producing interesting-to-watch footage, then I'd suggest studying some of the more well-known Alfred Hitchcock films, or some of Stanley Kubrick's films (just to mention a couple of directors famous for interesting photography in their work).  You can see some simple, but very effective, techniques that can be done with virtually any camera (i.e. most of what they've done is production technique, not special effects).
Get physically close to your subject
Although you can zoom into a shot, to appear to get closer, it's not the same thing.  The visual perspective is different, and so is the sound.  You get nicer looking shots when you get closer to a person that you're filming, and the sound will be much better.
A telephoto shot is more susceptible to jerky pictures than a wide angle shot, and focussing is harder to do, as everything is magnified.  You also lose depth of field with telephoto shots (only things in a narrow range remain in focus, e.g. the background may go out of focus), although this may be an effect that you deliberately want.
The microphone will pick up sounds from all directions, though usually mostly from the front.  Anything that's closer to the microphone will be heard the most (the noises of the camera, the breathing of the cameraman, wind noise, road noise, etc.), and the further a sound source is from the microphone, the quieter it becomes in comparison (the ambient noises become louder than the sound that you actually want to record).  It's another of those “inverse square” laws—when you double the distance, you get a quarter of the sound, and so on.
Manually control your lens
Turn off auto-focus and auto-exposure, and manually control them.  They're not magic, they can't tell what part of your picture is the focal point, nor what is the correct exposure for the entireity of the picture (they'll just average the picture to mid-level exposure, which doesn't work for very contrasty shots, or anything that shouldn't actually look mid-level exposed).
Focus is a distance-related thing—it needs to be set to suit the distance between what you're filming, and the camera.  On a real film camera, you'd measure the distance and set the focus to the same mark on the lens.  For less precise lenses, you set focus by adjusting for a sharp looking picture.  Do so to see a sharply defined image on the actual point of interest in the shot.  e.g. If you're filming a person speaking, then focus on their mouth or their eyes, that's what the viewer will be looking at.  Do not focus the camera on the wall behind them.
Likewise, set the exposure to suit the point of interest in the shot.  Again, if you were filming a person doing something, then set the exposure so you can see them properly, with the right amount of illumination for the shot (whether they're supposed to be in a bright room, or skulking around in the dark), ignore the exposure of the rest of the scenery around them unless that is actually important to the shot.  If there's a lighting problem between them and the room around them, then adjust your lighting (how bright it is; the height, spread, and angle of lighting; and use separate lighting for foreground and background).
Film scenes using more than just one shot
It's usually best to film a scene using multiple shots, giving different perspectives to what's being viewed (different angles, different magnifications, etc), but don't overdo it.  There are times when lots of quick cuts make a scene good, and there are times when a really lengthy shot make something more natural to watch.  You can see some examples of the latter by watching some children's television (they often seem to be done in a very simple style), and some of the cheaper, older, made on film, television shows (it costs less to do a prolonged two-shot of some actors talking, than it does to film lots of individual close-ups, and it's quicker to film).
Decide on the style of shots that you will use, and be consistent unless there's a reason to change.  For example, most productions tend to use static shots, and will change camera angles (when needed) by cutting to a new shot.  Generally, you'll only have a motion shot if there's a need for it, such as to follow someone who walks around in a fairly tight shot.  Whereas action scenes might use nothing but motion shots, usually to make things look more frantic than they really were.  Some directors will start using motion shots during boring scenes, but they really should have changed the scene to make it less boring.
Film more than just your subject
Filming something else gives you shots to break up what you're filming, to hide where you place your edits (cutting away to something else, for a moment, allows you to edit out parts that you don't want, without it being glaringly obvious that you've taken something out), and so it's not boring to watch.  But make sure that what you use as “cut-aways” are appropriate to what you're interrupting (e.g. show what they're talking about, the whole scene around them, or the reactions to what they're doing, etc.), and aren't confusing (e.g. don't switch views so that something that was going from right to left is suddenly moving in the opposite direction, nor do everything all in close-up so that viewers can't comprehend a scene).
Film at the same height as your subject
Unless you're trying to achieve a dramatic effect, then adjust the height of where you place the camera to match the height of what you're filming.  This gives a much more natural look for your subject (picture yourself talking to people—if they stand, you generally stand with them; and if they sit, you sit down with them; so you're all on the same eye level, as if you were both the same height).
To remember the usual reasons for dramatically filming someone from different heights, think of the phrases, “looking up to someone,” and, “looking down at someone.”  The effects (in filming) are the same.
Use an external microphone
If you can't get close enough to what you're taping, or you're in a noisy environment, then using a microphone that's remote from the camera really helps get a much better sound (you record more of the scene's sound, rather than the camera noises, this way).  You can get wireless mikes quite cheaply, so you're not tethered together; or you can get a very long cable so you avoid radio interference with the sound, but still be able to record distant sources.
You can also get mikes with different pickup patterns:  Omnidirectional mikes pick up sound from all directions, unidirectional mikes are optimised to pick up sound from one direction, superdirectional mikes are heavily optimised to pick up sound from just one direction, and noise-cancelling mikes will only pick up sound directed at them in a specific way (general ambient noise will be cancelled out).
Be mindful of what you want to record.  If it's just one thing, then get the microphone as close to that as possible.  But if you want to also capture some of the ambient sound, then you want to pull the microphone back a bit, use certain types of mikes, or use more than one microphone through a sound mixer.
Use headphones with your camera at the same time.  Then you can hear what you're actually recording, and you'll be able to tell if something goes wrong (the mike becoming unplugged, being switched off, batteries going flat, noises interferring with the sound, really loud sounds distorting, etc.).  You can waste a lot of filming if you only find out later on that the sound was unusable.
Use a shockmount to hold your microphone, it'll help prevent handling noises getting into the sound.  Likewise, use wind filters to reduce wind noise pickup.
I'd recommend against taking sound feeds from someone else's mixing desk, unless you've got your own mixer and microphones to record ambient sound with it, have audio transformers to avoid hum loops, and you're somewhere where you can properly monitor your sound without interference from ambient noise.  Typically, you'll find that they've not miked everything, and some things will not be covered (leaving you with poor, or no sound, for that portion).  And that the mixing levels for amplification purposes are usually not suitable for recording.
Control your lighting
Use lighting as best you can, or adjust what you're filming when you can't.  You want most of your light to be lighting up the front of what you're filming, and usually to one side and above, rather than head on (think of how the Sun lights things when it's not midday).  If the light's behind what you're filming, such as filming someone with a window behind them, or a light source in front of them (e.g. candles or table lamps at their own height), they'll be too dark.  Lighting used in the wrong places can cause shadows in nasty places (e.g. lighting that's front on, directly above, directly beside, etc.).
There are times where it's nearly impossible to adjust the lighting (e.g. filming outdoors).  Then, you're best to rearrange what you're filming into different positions, or use reflector boards to bounce more light into where you need it (you can use ordinary white cardboard, cloth, or specialist devices to do this).
Mixing together different light sources is usually a bad idea.  Daylight is much bluer than most artificial light sources.  Studio lighting is generally reddish–orange compared to daylight.  And flourescent lighting usually used to be quite greenish, although they do come in a variety of colour temperatures.  It's well to remember that it's common enough for a room to have a mixture of different types of flouros being used in it, and their age also affects their colour.
Use a tripod
If you're filming something that needs a steady shot, then use something like a tripod (or place the camera on a stable object), so that you get a steady shot.  It's very distracting to watch something like someone speaking at a presentation, if the camera is wobbling all over the place as if it were being filmed during an earthquake.
You can get quite small tripods that are easy to carry around, even tiny ones designed so that you can place a camera on a table to get a steady shot, but still be able to adjust the angle of the camera.
It's usually best not to lock the tripod head in position, so that you can easily follow moving subjects (including standing or seated people, that are still most of the time, but might move).  But for long telephoto shots, you might get a bit of wobble.  A partial solution is to increase the friction without actually locking the head into place.  Also, don't grip the panning arm like grim death, try to hold it in a relaxed manner.
Use a tripod that's designed to carry the weight of your camera.  It shouldn't wobble while you use the camera, the locks should be strong enough to hold the camera in any position, by themselves.  Video camera tripods should let you do smooth pans and tilts, many still camera tripods aren't suitable for supporting a camera with movement.
Edit, and be ruthless while editing
Editing means putting together just the shots that you need.  You should remove anything that doesn't belong (mistakes, lots of waiting around for something to happen, boring pauses between things, etc.), and remove things that are just pointless.
NB:  You can't fix filming errors with editing, you're stuck with them.  Bad sound is bad sound, out of focus shots are out of focus, etc.  If you make a mistake while filming, re-do the shot straight away.  I've seen plenty of people waste lots of time trying to fix the unfixable, after the event, and either dumping a lot of material that they wanted to use (after wasting a lot of time), or including really awful material that should have been completely dumped.
Experiment, and read the manual
Practice using your equipment on something that's not important, ahead of time, so that you're not trying to figure out how to use it at the crucial moment.  Try out some of its special features, and learn how to turn some of them off (having a date over everything you record looks awful, even more so if it's wrong, and it makes wobbly camerawork even more noticeable; auto-focus can keep changing the focus, and end up focussing on the wrong thing in a shot; auto-iris can keep incorrectly set the exposure of a shot if there are conflicting conditions, such as a person with a window behind them, or when you're following someone who's walking around).